electrically adv : by electricity; "electrically controlled"
- Italian: elettricamente
Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, "amber-like") is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena such as lightning and static electricity, but in addition, less familiar concepts such as the electromagnetic field and electromagnetic induction.
In general usage, the word 'electricity' is adequate to refer to a number of physical effects. However, in scientific usage, the term is vague, and these related, but distinct, concepts are better identified by more precise terms:
- Electric charge – a property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.
- Electric current – a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, typically measured in amperes.
- Electric field – an influence produced by an electric charge on other charges in its vicinity.
- Electric potential – the capacity of an electric field to do work, typically measured in volts.
- Electromagnetism – a fundamental interaction between the electric field and the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electricity has been studied since antiquity, though scientific advances were not forthcoming until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It would remain however until the late nineteenth century that engineers were able to put electricity to industrial and residential use, a time which witnessed a rapid expansion in the development of electrical technology. Electricity's extraordinary versatility as a source of energy means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation. The backbone of modern industrial society is, and for the foreseeable future can be expected to remain, the use of electrical power.
Historyseealso Etymology of electricity That certain objects such as rods of amber could be rubbed with cat's fur and attract light objects like feathers was known to ancient cultures around the Mediterranean. Thales of Miletos conducted a series of experiments into static electricity around 600 BC, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing. Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but later science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity.
A controversial claim is made that the Parthians had some knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though this claim lacks evidence supporting the exact nature of the artifact, and whether it was electrical in nature.
Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and torpedo rays, and knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them.
The presence of charge gives rise to the electromagnetic force: charges exert a force on each other, an effect that was known, though not understood, in antiquity. A lightweight ball suspended from a string can be charged by touching it with a glass rod that has itself been charged by rubbing with a cloth. If a similar ball is charged by the same glass rod, it is found to repel the first: the charge acts to force the two balls apart. Two balls that are charged with an rubbed amber rod also repel each other. However, if one ball is charged by the glass rod, and the other by an amber rod, the two balls are found to attract each other. These phenomena were investigated in the late eighteenth century by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, who deduced that charge manifests itself in two opposing forms, leading to the well-known axiom: like-charged objects repel and opposite-charged objects attract. The electromagnetic force is very strong, second only in strength to the strong interaction, but unlike that force it operates over all distances. In comparison with the much weaker gravitational force, the electromagnetic force pushing two electrons apart is 1042 times that of the gravitational attraction pulling them together.
The charge on electrons and protons is opposite in sign, hence an amount of charge may be expressed as being either negative or positive. By convention, the charge carried by electrons is deemed negative, and that by protons positive, a custom that originated with the work of Benjamin Franklin. The amount of charge is usually given the symbol Q and expressed in coulombs; each electron carries the same charge of approximately −1.6022×10−19 coulomb. The proton has a charge that is equal and opposite, and thus +1.6022×10−19 coulomb. Charge is possessed not just by matter, but also by antimatter, each antiparticle bearing an equal and opposite charge to its corresponding particle.
Charge can be measured by a number of means, an early instrument being the gold-leaf electroscope, which although still in use for classroom demonstrations, has been superseded by the electronic electrometer. However, depending on the conditions, an electric current can consist of a flow of charged particles in either direction, or even in both directions at once. The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify this situation. If another definition is used—for example, "electron current"—it needs to be explicitly stated.
The process by which electric current passes through a material is termed electrical conduction, and its nature varies with that of the charged particles and the material through which they are travelling. Examples of electric currents include metallic conduction, where electrons flow through a conductor such as metal, and electrolysis, where ions (charged atoms) flow through liquids. While the particles themselves can move quite slowly, sometimes with a average drift velocity only fractions of a millimetre per second, the electric field that drives them itself propagates at close to the speed of light, enabling electrical signals to pass rapidly along wires.
Current causes several observable effects, which historically were the means of recognising its presence. That water could be decomposed by the current from a voltaic pile was discovered by Nicholson and Carlisle in 1800, a process now known as electrolysis. Their work was greatly expanded upon by Michael Faraday in 1833. Current through a resistance causes localised heating, an effect James Prescott Joule studied mathematically in 1840. He had discovered electromagnetism, a fundamental interaction between electricity and magnetics.
In engineering or household applications, current is often described as being either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). These terms refer to how the current varies in time. Direct current, as produced by example from a battery and required by most electronic devices, is a unidirectional flow from the positive part of a circuit to the negative. If, as is most common, this flow is carried by electrons, they will be travelling in the opposite direction. Alternating current is any current that reverses direction repeatedly; almost always this takes the form of a sinusoidal wave. Alternating current thus pulses back and forth within a conductor without the charge moving any net distance over time. The time-averaged value of an alternating current is zero, but it delivers energy in first one direction, and then the reverse. Alternating current is affected by electrical properties that are not observed under steady state direct current, such as inductance and capacitance. These properties however can become important when circuitry is subjected to transients, such as when first energised.
Electric fieldseealso Electrostatics The concept of the electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. An electric field is created by a charged body in the space that surrounds it, and results in a force exerted on any other charges placed within the field. The electric field acts between two charges in a similar manner to the way that the gravitational field acts between two masses, and like it, extends towards infinity and shows an inverse square relationship with distance. and its strength at any one point is defined as the force (per unit charge) that would be felt by a stationary, negligible charge if placed at that point. The conceptual charge, termed a test charge, must be vanishingly small to prevent its own electric field disturbing the main field and must also be stationary to prevent the effect of magnetic fields. As the electric field is defined in terms of force, and force is a vector, so it follows that an electric field is also a vector, having both magnitude and direction. Specifically, it is a vector field. whose term 'lines of force' still sometimes sees use. The field lines are the paths that a point positive charge would seek to make as it was forced to move within the field; they are however an imaginary concept with no physical existence, and the field permeates all the intervening space between the lines.
The principals of electrostatics are important when designing items of high-voltage equipment. There is a finite limit to the electric field strength that may withstood by any medium. Beyond this point, electrical breakdown occurs and an electric arc causes flashover between the charged parts. Air, for example, tends to arc at electric field strengths which exceed 30 kV per centimetre across small gaps. Over larger gaps, its breakdown strength is weaker, perhaps 1 kV per centimetre. The most visible natural occurrence of this is lightning, caused when charge becomes separated in the clouds by rising columns of air, and raises the electric field in the air to greater than it can withstand. The voltage of a large lightning cloud may be as high as 100 MV and have discharge energies as great as 250 kWh.
The field strength is greatly affected by nearby conducting objects, and it is particularly intense when it is forced to curve around sharply pointed objects. This principal is exploited in the lightning conductor, the sharp spike of which acts to encourage the lightning stroke to develop there, rather than to the building it serves to protect.
Electric potentialseealso Voltage The concept of electric potential is closely linked to that of the electric field. A small charge placed within an electric field experiences a force, and to have brought that charge to that point against the force requires work. The electric potential at any point is defined as the energy required to bring a unit test charge from an infinite distance slowly to that point. It is usually measured in volts, and one volt is the potential for which one joule of work must be expended to bring a charge of one coulomb from infinity. This definition of potential, while formal, has little practical application, and a more useful concept is that of electric potential difference, and is the energy required to move a unit charge between two specified points. An electric field has the special property that it is conservative, which means that the path taken by the test charge is irrelevant: all paths between two specified points expend the same energy, and thus a unique value for potential difference may be stated.
Electric potential is a scalar quantity, that is, it has only magnitude and not direction. It may be viewed as analogous to temperature: as there is a certain temperature at every point in space, and the temperature gradient indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind heat flow, similarly, there is an electric potential at every point in space, and its gradient, or field strength, indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind charge movement. Equally, electric potential may be seen as analogous to height: just as a released object will fall through a difference in heights caused by a gravitational field, so a charge will 'fall' across the voltage caused by an electric field.
The electric field was formally defined as the force exerted per unit charge, but the concept of potential allows for a more useful and equivalent definition: the electric field is the local gradient of the electric potential. Usually expressed in volts per metre, the vector direction of the field is the line of greatest gradient of potential.
ElectromagnetismØrsted's discovery in 1821 that a magnetic field existed around all sides of a wire carrying an electric current indicated that there was a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism. Moreover, the interaction seemed different from gravitational and electrostatic forces, the two forces of nature then known. The force on the compass needle did not direct it to or away from the current-carrying wire, but acted at right angles to it.
Ørsted did not fully understand his discovery, but he observed the effect was reciprocal: a current exerts a force on a magnet, and a magnetic field exerts a force on a current. The phenomenon was further investigated by Ampère, who discovered that two parallel current carrying wires exerted a force upon each other: two wires conducting currents in the same direction are attracted to each other, while wires containing current flowing in opposite directions are forced apart. The interaction is mediated by the magnetic field each current produces and forms the basis for the international definition of the ampere.
Experimentation by Faraday in 1831 revealed that a wire moving perpendicular to a magnetic field developed a potential difference between its ends. Further analysis of this process, known as electromagnetic induction, enabled him to state the principal, now known as Faraday's law of induction, that the potential difference induced in a closed circuit is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. Exploitation of this discovery enabled him to invent the first electrical generator in 1831, in which he converted the mechanical energy of a rotating copper disc to electrical energy. Such a phenomenon has the properties of a wave, and is naturally referred to as an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves were analysed theoretically by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864. Maxwell discovered a set of equations that could unambiguously describe the interrelationship between electric field, magnetic field, electric charge, and electric current. He could moreover prove that such a wave would necessarily travel at the speed of light, and thus light itself was a form of electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's Laws, which unify light, fields, and charge are one of the great milestones of theoretical physics.
The resistor is perhaps the simplest of passive circuit elements: as its name suggests, it resists the flow of current through it, dissipating its energy as heat. Ohm's law is a basic law of circuit theory, stating that the current passing through a resistance is directly proportional to the potential difference across it. The ohm, the unit of resistance, was named in honour of Georg Ohm, and is symbolised by the Greek letter Ω. 1 Ω is the resistance that will produce a potential difference of one volt in response to a current of one amp. It was not until the invention of the voltaic pile in the eighteenth century that a viable source of electricity became available. The voltaic pile, and its modern descendant, the electrical battery, store energy chemically and make it available on demand in the form of electrical energy. The invention in the late nineteenth century of the transformer meant that electricity could be generated at centralised power stations, benefiting from economies of scale, and be transmitted across countries with increasing efficiency. Since electrical energy cannot easily be stored in quantities large enough to meet demands on a national scale, at all times exactly as much must be produced as is required. a rate of growth that is now being experienced by emerging economies such as those of India or China. Historically, the growth rate for electricity demand has outstripped that for other forms of energy, such as coal.
Environmental concerns with electricity generation have led to an increased focus on generation from renewable sources, in particular from wind- and hydropower. While debate can be expected to continue over the environmental impact of different means of electricity production, its final form is relatively clean.
UsesElectricity is an extremely flexible form of energy, and it may be adapted to a huge, and growing, number of uses. The invention of a practical incandescent light bulb in the 1870s led to lighting becoming one of the first publicly available applications of electrical power. Although electrification brought with it its own dangers, replacing the naked flames of gas lighting greatly reduced fire hazards within homes and factories. Public utilities were set up in many cities targeting the burgeoning market for electrical lighting.
The Joule heating effect employed in the light bulb also sees more direct use in electric heating. While this is versatile and controllable, it can be seen as wasteful, since most electrical generation has already required the production of heat at a power station. A number of countries, such as Denmark, have issued legislation restricting or banning the use of electric heating in new buildings. Electricity is however a highly practical energy source for refrigeration, with air conditioning representing a growing sector for electricity demand, the effects of which electricity utilities are increasingly obliged to accommodate.
Electricity is used within telecommunications, and indeed the electrical telegraph, demonstrated commercially in 1837 by Cooke and Wheatstone, was one of its earliest applications. With the construction of first intercontinental, and then transatlantic, telegraph systems in the 1860s, electricity had enabled communications in minutes across the globe. Optical fibre and satellite communication technology have taken a share of the market for communications systems, but electricity can be expected to remain an essential part of the process.
The effects of electromagnetism are most visibly employed in the electric motor, which provides a clean and efficient means of motive power. A stationary motor such as a winch is easily provided with a supply of power, but a motor that moves with its application, such as an electric vehicle, is obliged to either carry along a power source such as a battery, or by collecting current from a sliding contact such as a pantograph, placing restrictions on its range or performance.
Electronic devices make use of the transistor, perhaps one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century, and a fundamental building block of all modern circuitry. A modern integrated circuit may contain several billion miniaturised transistors in a region only a few centimetres square.
Electricity and the natural world
Physiological effectsA voltage applied to a human body causes an electric current to flow through the tissues, and although the relationship is non-linear, the greater the voltage, the greater the current. The threshold for perception varies with the supply frequency and with the path of the current, but is about 1 mA for mains-frequency electricity. If the current is sufficiently high, it will cause muscle contraction, fibrillation of the heart, and tissue burns.
Electrical phenomena in natureElectricity is by no means a purely human invention, and may be observed in several forms in nature, a prominent manifestation of which is lightning. The Earth's magnetic field is thought to arise from a natural dynamo of circulating currents in the planet's core. Certain crystals, such as quartz, or even sugarcane, generate a potential difference across their faces when subjected to external pressure. This phenomenon is known as piezoelectricity, from the Greek piezein, meaning to press, and was discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. The effect is reciprocal, and when a piezoelectric material is subjected to an electric field, a small change in physical dimensions take place. while others, termed electrogenic, are able to generate voltages themselves to serve as a predatory or defensive weapon. (Because of this principle, an electric shock can induce temporary or permanent paralysis by "overloading" the nervous system.) They are also responsible for coordinating activities in certain plants.
- Electrical energy, the potential energy of a system of charges
- Electricity market, the sale of electrical energy
- Electrical phenomena, observable events which illuminate the physical principles of electricity
- Electric power, the rate at which electrical energy is transferred
- Electronics, the study of the movement of charge through certain materials and devices
- Hydraulic analogy, an analogy between the flow of water and electric current
electrically in Afrikaans: Elektrisiteit
electrically in Arabic: كهرباء
electrically in Asturian: Lletricidá
electrically in Azerbaijani: Elektrik
electrically in Bambara: Kùran
electrically in Bengali: তড়িৎ
electrically in Belarusian: Электрычнасць
electrically in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Электрычнасьць
electrically in Bosnian: Elektricitet
electrically in Breton: Tredan
electrically in Bulgarian: Електричество
electrically in Catalan: Electricitat
electrically in Czech: Elektřina
electrically in Welsh: Trydan
electrically in Danish: Elektricitet
electrically in German: Elektrizität
electrically in Estonian: Elekter
electrically in Modern Greek (1453-): Ηλεκτρισμός
electrically in Spanish: Electricidad
electrically in Esperanto: Elektro
electrically in Basque: Argindar
electrically in Persian: الکتریسیته
electrically in French: Électricité
electrically in Friulian: Eletricitât
electrically in Irish: Leictreachas
electrically in Galician: Electricidade
electrically in Korean: 전기
electrically in Hindi: विद्युत
electrically in Croatian: Elektricitet
electrically in Ido: Elektro
electrically in Indonesian: Listrik
electrically in Inuktitut: ᓴᕕᒐᐅᔭᖅ/ikumautit
electrically in Icelandic: Rafmagn
electrically in Italian: Elettricità
electrically in Hebrew: חשמל
electrically in Georgian: ელექტრობა
electrically in Cornish: Tredan
electrically in Kurdish: Elektrîk
electrically in Lithuanian: Elektra
electrically in Hungarian: Elektromosság
electrically in Malagasy: Aratra
electrically in Malayalam: വൈദ്യുതി
electrically in Marathi: विद्युत
electrically in Malay (macrolanguage): Elektrik
electrically in Dutch: Elektriciteit
electrically in Japanese: 電気
electrically in Norwegian: Elektrisitet
electrically in Norwegian Nynorsk: Elektrisitet
electrically in Narom: Êtricitaé
electrically in Occitan (post 1500): Electricitat
electrically in Polish: Elektryczność
electrically in Portuguese: Electricidade
electrically in Quechua: Pinchikilla
electrically in Russian: Электричество
electrically in Albanian: Elektriciteti
electrically in Sinhala: විදුලිය
electrically in Simple English: Electricity
electrically in Slovenian: Elektrika
electrically in Finnish: Sähkö
electrically in Swedish: Elektricitet
electrically in Tamil: மின்சாரம்
electrically in Thai: ไฟฟ้า
electrically in Vietnamese: Điện
electrically in Turkish: Elektrik
electrically in Ukrainian: Електрика
electrically in Urdu: برق
electrically in Wolof: Mbëj
electrically in Yiddish: עלעקטריציטעט
electrically in Contenese: 電
electrically in Samogitian: Alektra
electrically in Chinese: 電
electrically in Slovak: Elektrina